During the 20th century Bosnian Muslims founded several cultural and welfare associations in order to promote and preserve their cultural identity. The most prominent associations were , , and later . The Bosnian Muslim intelligentsia also gathered around the magazine in the 1860s to promote the idea of a unified . This Bosniak group would remain active for several decades, with the continuity of ideas and the use of the . From 1891 until 1910, they published a Latin-script magazine titled (Bosniak), which promoted the concept of (Bošnjaštvo) and openness toward European culture. Since that time the Bosniaks adopted European culture under the broader influence of Habsburg Monarchy. At the same time they kept the peculiar characteristics of their Bosnian Islamic lifestyle. These initial, but important initiatives were followed by a new magazine named whose founders were (1870–1934), (1862–1954) and (1869–1937).
After Kallay's death in 1903, the official policy slowly drifted towards accepting the three-ethnic reality of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Ultimately, the failure of Austro-Hungarian ambitions to nurture a Bosniak identity amongst the Catholic and Orthodox led to almost exclusively Bosnian Muslims adhering to it, with 'Bosniakhood' consequently adopted as a Bosnian Muslim ethnic ideology by nationalist figures. The journal "Bošnjak" ("Bosniak") founded in 1891 by declared that Bosniaks (in the sense of all Bosnians) were neither Croats nor Serbs but a distinct, though related people. It remarked that: "whereas the Croats argue that the Orthodox are our greatest enemies and that is the same as Orthodoxy, the Serbs wear themselves out calling our attention to some bogus history, by which they have Serbianized the whole world. We shall never deny that we belong to the family; but we shall remain Bosniaks, like our forefathers, and nothing else."
28/01/2015 · Essay on Muslim Marriages
Within , jihad is usually taken to mean military exertion against non-believer/non-Muslim combatants. Jihad is the only form of warfare permissible in Islamic law and may be declared against illegal works, terrorists, criminal groups, rebels, , and leaders or states who oppress Muslims. Most Muslims today interpret Jihad as only a defensive form of warfare. Jihad only becomes an individual duty for those vested with authority. For the rest of the populace, this happens only in the case of a . For most , can only be declared by a of the Muslim community, and as such is suspended since 's occultation in 868 AD.